Excerpt | Sleep

when a man sleeps, he is steeped and lost in a limp toneless happiness: awake he is restless, tortured by his body and the illusion of existence. why have men spent the centuries seeking to overcome the awakened body? put it to sleep, that is a better way. let it serve only to turn the sleeping soul over, to change the blood-stream and thus make possible a deeper and more refined sleep. we must invert our conception of repose and activity... we should not sleep to recover the energy expended when awake but rather wake occasionally to defecate the unwanted energy that sleep engenders. this might be done quickly - a five-mile race at full tilt around the town and then back to bed and the kingdom of the shadows.

 

o'brien, f. (1939) at swim two birds.

Fundamentals | How We See

and now here is my secret, a very simple secret:
it is only with the heart that one can see rightly;
what is essential is invisible to the eye.

 

de saint-exupéry, a. (1943) the little prince.

Excerpt | THE CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE BIRD AND THE HAND

why do you always leave?
won't you will always be there with your hands outstretched, waiting for me to come home?

but what if i must leave too?
but i love you.

but what if i must leave, first?
but i will starve.

but what if i find another bird?
the loneliness would kill me.

then why don't you stay?
because i have only ever known the sky, and you are so beautiful that touching you hurts, knowing that one day - you may die and leave me here, with only this blue: with only this endless, endless blue.

 

moon, s. (2013) the anatomy of being.

Et Cetera | Albert Frey
 
Frey House II. 1964

Frey House II. 1964

 
Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Final Part

in 1920 there were about fifty spinning companies in ulster of which seventeen were in belfast. at the same time there were some 35,000 power looms in about a hundred weaving factories. by the depressed nineteen-thirties, production was less than forty per cent of the pre-war figure. in 1939 only 59,000 were employed out of a total registered workforce of 72,000. this decline was arrested temporarily by the second world conflict. linen again contributed in many ways to the war effort. by 1945 the number in work had declined to 40,000, although this had recovered to about 55,000 by 1950.

the 1950s saw linen and cotton, in the united kingdom, marginalised by the explosion of man-made fibres, cheap cotton imports from the far east and paper products. indeed, the growth of man-made fibre production in ulster itself contributed to the demise of linen. 

by the 1970s the labour force had gone down by about half from the 1950 figure. of late there has been somewhat of a renaissance in linen with burgeoning demand from the luxury end of the market, particularly in high fashion. 



colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen.

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part VII

in 1913 a list of the largest firms in the irish linen industry, published in a trade directory by john warral ltd, showed the york street flax spinning co ltd, the company founded by the mulhollands, as the largest spinning and weaving concern with 63,000 spindles and a thousand looms. j. & t.m.greeves was the largest spinning company with 70,000 spindles. milfort weavers with factories in belfast and dunmurry were the largest weaving concerns in ulster with 1000 looms. the industry generally remained prosperous, up to the first world war. as a result of that war, production reached a new peak with the need for materials for uniforms and coverings for aircraft wings and fuselages.

however, after the war, in common with cotton, linen manufacture entered a slow process of decline. 

... to be cont.


colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen.

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part VI

expansion was fuelled by a good supply of swift flowing water and scottish coal that could be brought more cheaply by sea to belfast than overland to most of the inudstrial centres of britain. the irish linen manufacturers kept their product to the forefront, in competition with the less expensive cotton, by stressing its superiority in household and clothing use, and by an aggressive marketing policy in the expanding markets of the empire and north and south america. this was backed up by considerable investment in research and development which was characteristic of the progressive business attitude of the linen industrialists. however in some sectors of the industry, the conditions and low earnings of the workers often provided a bleak contrast to this air of general progress. for example, much of the finishing was done by women in their own homes at very low piece rates. the government linen inquiry of 1912, looked at 531 cases out of the reported 4000 outworkers in the belfast area. of these 497 were paid less than 3d an hour, 422 less than 2d and 269 earned 1d or less per hour at a time when a loaf of bread was about 6d and rent for such workers about five shillings a week. 

... to be cont.


colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen.

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part V

most important were sion mills, co tyrone, built by herdmans in 1835 and bessbrook, co armagh estatblished in the 1840s by the quaker richardson family. in the case of bessbrook, the richardsons were very protective of the moral welfare of the inhabitants ensuring the absence of the three p's, police barracks, public houses and pawnshops. in addition they had a contributory health service for workers long before the welfare state and even a savings scheme, yielding interest of 5%. indeed bessbrook became the model for the village of bournville built in the 1890s by the qualker chocolate manufacturers, the cadbury family. in both sion mills and bessbrook a real feeling of community spirit was engendered in the workers due to their environment, which made them the envy of their counterparts elsewhere in the linen industry. herdman's is still in business but the bessbrook spinning company closed down in 1972, although the village is still well worth visiting. all the workers got redundancy payments and were able to buy their houses at very low cost. with the decline in importance of linen in the years since the war and the increased mobility of the population, the mill villages have changed both in their physical composition and their sense of community.

... to be cont.


colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen.

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part IV

while the lagan valley became the main area of linen production, purpose built mill villages were important in other areas. the earliest of these was barbour's plantation built near lisburn in 1784. others included f.w.hayes' mill and village at seapatrick near banbridge; upperlands, mossley, muckamore, shrigley, drumaness, milford, and edenderry. dunbarton at gilford was built in the 1820s by dunbar mcmaster and company. donaghcloney was the home of william liddell and co. in all of these, with the exception of gilford, there had been some spinning or weaving in existence. they were little self-contained industrial communities, in many respects resembling the american company town. the employers planned the villages with well-designed housing, schools, libraries, community centres and plenty of recreational activities, especially cricket. this contrasted favourably with the lot of many industrial workers in the larger urban centres. 

... to be cont.


colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen.

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part III

cotton, the principal textile in the british isles, was supplanted in ulster by linen, early in the last century, as a result of inventions which allowed wet spinning of fine linen yarns and powerloom weaving. 
a catalyst to the introduction of these new processes was the accidental burning down of the mulholland brothers cotton weaving factory in belfast in the 1820s. 
In rebuilding, they decided to make the switch to linen and such was their success tha tmany other manufacturers followed suit. this led to the growth of a huge number of linen spinning mills in and around belfast.
the temporary unavailability of cotton, during the american civil war, led to a big demand for linen in the 1850s and 1860s, which was to persist. the number of mills in belfast grew from one in 1831 to thirty two in 1861. this was mirrored in other towns such as lisburn, banbridge and lurgan, and mill villages such as waringstown, bessbrook and sion mills.

... to be cont.


colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen

Excerpt | History of Irish Linen Part II

the government encouraged the coming to the north of ireland of some five hundred families of huguenots, french protestants. fleeing persecution, by louis XIV, at the end of the seventeenth century, they brought with them skills which were to take root in ulster and out of which grew a widespread cottage industry.  

a leading huguenot, louis crommelin, was given the grandiose title, 'overseer of the royal linen manufacture' and had a great influence over the development of the industry from the base which these immigrants had established in lisburn and the lagan valley.

it was not only immigrants who assisted the development of the industry. landlords, especially lord conway, lord hillsborough and the brownlows in lurgan as well as the london livery companies in the coleraine area, set in train important development work. samuel waring of waringstown, in the late seventeenth century, imported a colony of flemish weavers who brought with them improved methods entirely new to ireland.

in addition, a linen board was established in 1711 to oversee the development of the industry. the board functioned for over a century, during which time the industry moved from cottage to factory production. this came about, in the early nineteenth century, due to the proliferation of inventions in the textile industry in britain and america. the application of these spread rapidly, due to the effective juxtaposition of surplus captial and entrepreneurial initiative that characterised the period of the industrial revolution in ulster.

... to be cont.

 

colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen

31 Chapel Lanecontinue from the history of irish linen part i the government encouraged the coming to the north of ireland of some five hundred families of huguenots, french protestants. fleeing persecution, by louis XIV, at the end of the seventeenth century, they brought with them skills which were to take root in ulster and out of which grew a widespread cottage industry. a leading huguenot, louis crommelin, was given the grandiose title, 'overseer of the royal linen manufacture' and had a great influence over the development of the industry from the base which these immigrants had established in lisburn and the lagan valley. it was not only immigrants who assisted the development of the industry. landlords, especially lord conway, lord hillsborough and the brownlows in lurgan as well as the london livery companies in the coleraine area, set in train important development work. samuel waring of waringstown, in the late seventeenth century, imported a colony of flemish weavers who brought with them improved methods entirely new to ireland. in addition, a linen board was established in 1711 to oversee the development of the industry. the board functioned for over a century, during which time the industry moved from cottage to factory production. this came about, in the early nineteenth century, due to the proliferation of inventions in the textile industry in britain and america. the application of these spread rapidly, due to the effective juxtaposition of surplus captial and entrepreneurial initiative that characterised the period of the industrial revolution in ulster. ... to be cont. colins, p. (1994) history of irish linen, History of Irish Linen, Linen, Linen Clothing, Pure Linen, Irish Linen, Irish Linen Clothing, Irish linen clothing, Pure Irish Linen, Wool, Pure Wool, Tweed, Donegal Tweed, Ireland, Visiting Ireland, Made in Ireland, 31 Chapel Lane, Seven Titles